Microbiological Quality of Raw Cow Milk across the Milk Supply Chain in Eastern Ethiopia
Abstract: The risk of milk contamination with spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms is high for milk produced in developing countries like Ethiopia especially in lowland region as their milk production practices is traditional type which lack appropriate hygienic control. To protect the raw cow milk from spoilage loss and consumers from milk born public health risk, the availability of documented information on the microbiological quality of raw milk across the milk supply chain is critically important as such information may be important for different organization to undertake relevant development intervention on hygienic practices essential for safe milk production and handling. This study was, therefore, conducted to determine the microbiological quality of informally marketed raw cow milk across the milk supply chain in eastern Ethiopia. A total of 360 pooled raw cow milk samples (each with a volume of 450 mL) were collected from udders and milk handling equipment of producers in rural areas of Babile district; from the equipment of collectors/transporters in Harar and Dire Dawa towns as well as from the equipment of vendors and consumer at Babile, Harar and Dire Dawa towns during February 2014 to January 2015. The milk samples were subjected to laboratory analyses to evaluate total aerobic mesophilic bacteria count (TAMBC), total coliform count (TCC), yeast count (YC) and mold count (MC) in the laboratory to determine the microbiological quality of the milk. Mean TAMBC, TCC, YC and MC for raw cow milk samples collected directly from the udders were 6.02Â±0.14, 4.23Â±0.12, 2.57Â±0.10 and 2.67Â±0.10 log10 cfu mL-1, respectively. The values for the samples collected from the equipment of producers upon arrival at their selling points were 7.17Â±0.14, 5.86Â±0.12, 3.46Â±0.10 and 3.70Â±0.10 log10 cfu mL-1 for TAMBC, TCC, YC and MC, respectively. Mean TAMBC, TCC, YC and MC for samples collected from the equipment of collectors/transporters were 7.96Â±0.10, 6.49Â±0.07, 3.99Â±0.07 and 4.37Â±0.07 log10 cfu mL-1, respectively. The microbial counts for samples collected from the equipment of vendors were 8.78Â±0.08, 7.32Â±0.07, 4.98Â±0.06 and 5.04Â±0.07 log10 cfu mL-1 for TAMBC, TCC, YC and MC, respectively. The values for samples collected from equipment of consumers were 8.82Â±0.08, 7.37Â±0.07, 5.10Â±0.06 and 5.11Â±0.07 log10 cfu mL-1 for TAMBC, TCC, YC and MC, respectively. It could be concluded that raw cow milk samples collected from all towns and milk source were severely contaminated with aerobic mesophilic and coliform bacteria, yeast and molds, with loads exceeding the respective acceptable limits.
Keywords: Dairy production system; Herd size; Microbiological quality; Milk supply chain, Raw cow milk
Abdulwasi, S. 2009. An assessment of the effectiveness of the upgrading and revitalization strategies for housing development in case of Harar city. MSc Thesis, Ethiopian Civil Service University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Pp 10-12.
Abebe, B., Zelalem, Y. and Ajebu, N. 2012. Hygienic and microbial quality of raw whole cowâ€™s milk produced in Ezha district of the Gurage zone, Southern Ethiopia. Wudpecker Journal of Agricultural Research, 1: 459-465.
Alehegne, W. 2004. Bacteriological quality of bovine milk in small holder dairy farms in Debre Zeit. MSc. Thesis, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Pp 1-56.
Ali, A. A. 2010. Microbiological safety of raw milk in Khartoum State, Sudan: 2- Khartoum-North City. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 9: 651-653.
Ali, A. A. and Abdelgadir, W. S. 2011. Incidence of Escherichia coli in raw cow's milk in Khartoum State. British Journal of Dairy Sciences, 2 (1): 23-26.
Andrews, W. 1992. Manual of Food Quality Control 4. Rev1. Microbiological analysis. Food and Drug Administration. FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 14 (4Revis 1): ISBN-13:978-9251031896, Pp 1-338.
Arabali, M. and Amare, E. 2015. A cross sectional study on prevalence of Cephalopina titillateor infection in camel (Camelus dromedaries) in Dire Dawa Administrative Region, Ethiopia. Advances in Biological Research, 9 (4): 225-229.
Asrat, A. 2010. Production, utilization and marketing of milk and milk products and quality of fresh whole milk produced in and around Boditti Town of Wolayta Zone. M.Sc. Thesis, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia. Pp 58-79.
BDLDHA (Babile District Livestock Development and Health Agency). 2015. Annual Report on Livestock Production Potential at Babile District, Ethiopia, P.159.
Bedilu, D., Hussien, H. K. and Adem, K. 2015. Structure, conduct and performance of marketing chains: The case of milk marketing among pastoralists and agro-pastoralists of Eastern Ethiopia. Global Journal of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development, 3: 206-213.
Belachew, M. and Zeleke, D. 2015. Statistical analysis of road traffic car accident in Dire Dawa Administrative City, Eastern Ethiopia. Science Journal of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, 3 (6): 250-256.
Bytyqi, H., Bigler, S., Muji, S., Jahja, A. and Zaugg, U. 2011. Survey on raw milk quality in Kosovo. Food and Nutrition Science, 2: 414-21.
Chatterjee, S., Bhattacharjee, I., Chatterjee, S. K. and Chandra, G. 2006. Microbiological examination of milk in Tarakeswar, India with special reference to coliforms. African Journal of Biotechnology, 5: 1383-1385.
Cheung, W. H., Senay, G. B. and Singh, A. 2008. Trends and spatial distribution of annual and seasonal rain fall in Ethiopia. International Journal Climatology, 28: 1723-1734.
Coorevits, A., De Jonghe, V., Vandroemme, J., Reekmans, R., Heyrman, J., Messens, W., De Vos, P. and Heyndrickx, M. 2008. Comparative analysis of the diversity of aerobic- spore-forming bacteria in raw milk from organic and conventional dairy farms system. System and Applied Microbiology, 31: 126-140.
CSA (Central Statistical Agency). 2008. Statistical Abstract 2007, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, East Hararghe Zone profile, 2009, web site, http://www.oromiagov.org /socio % 20 Economic%20profile/East%20 Hararghe%20 zone/East% 20 Hararghe% 20 zone. doc.
CSA. 2013. Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Central Statistical Agency, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Population Projection of Ethiopia for the Year 2014, Pp 4-38.
Dayanandan, R. 2011. Production and marketing efficiency of dairy farms in highland of Ethiopia: An economic analysis. International Journal of Enterprise Computing and Business Systems, 1 (2): 1-34.
Derese, T. 2008. Present situation of urban and peri-urban milk production and quality of raw milk produced in west Shewa Zone, Oromia Region. MS.c. Thesis, Haramaya University, Haramaya, Ethiopia.
Dinkineh, A., Ameha, K. and Sisay, M. 2014. Prevalence of antibiotic resistance Salmonella isolates, Entermoeba histolytica and Giardia lomblia in Harar, Eastern Ethiopia. African Journal of Microbiological Research, 8 (20): 2044-2053.
Diro, G. T., Grimes, D. I. F., Black, E., Oâ€™Neill, A. and Pardo-Iguzquiza, E. 2009. Evaluation of reanalysisrainfall estimates over Ethiopia. International Journal Climatology, 29: 67-78.
EACS, 2007. Raw Cow Milk-Specification. East African Community (EACS, 2007) standard. Pp 1-19.
El-Diasty, E. M., El-Kaseh, R. M. 2009. Microbiological monitoring of raw milk and yoghurt samples collected from El-Beida city. Arab Journal of Biotechnology, 12: 57-64.
Fox, L. K., Chester, S. T., Hallberg, J. W., Nickerson, S. C., Pankey, J. W. and Weaver, L. D. 1995. Survey of intramammary infections in dairy heifers at breeding age and first parturition. Journal of Dairy Science, 78: 1619-1628.
Francesconi, G. N. 2006. Promoting milk quality of cooperative smallholders: Evidence from Ethiopia and implications for policy. In: Proceeding of the 14thAnnual Conference of the Ethiopian Society of Animal Production (ESAP), Part II: Technical Papers Held on September 5-7, 2006, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Pp 31-41.
Gamal, M. H., Arafa, M. S. M. and Soad, M. G. 2015. Microbiological quality and safety of fluid milk marketed in Cairo and Giza Governorates. Current Research in Dairy Science, 7 (1): 18-25.
Gemechu, T., Beyene, F. and Eshetu, M. 2014. Handling practices and microbial quality of raw cow's milk produced and marketed in Shashemene Town, Southern Ethiopia. International Journal of Agriculture and Soil Sciences, 2: 153-162.
Gurmessa, T. 2015. Microbiological quality and impact of hygienic practices on raw cow's milk obtained from pastoralists and market. The case of Yabello District, Borana zone, Ethiopia. Global Journal of Food Science and Technology, 3: 153-158.
Haile, W., Zelalem, Y. and Yosef, T. 2012. Hygienic practices and microbiological quality of raw milk produced under different farm size in Hawassa, southern Ethiopia. Agricultural Research and Reviews, 1: 132-142.
Heeschen, W. H. 1997. Milk hygiene and milk safety in the European and international markets. XIV conference on mastitis and milk quality, Palma, Mallorca.
IDF (International Dairy Federation). 2004. IDF Standard 94:2004. Milk and Milk Products-Enumeration of Colony Forming Unit of Yeast and Mold, 2nd edition. IDF, Brussels, Belgium.
Karmen, G. T. and Slavica, G. T. 2008. The microbiological quality of raw milk after introducing the two dayâ€™s milk collecting system. Acta Agriculurae Slovenica, 92:61-74.
Kiiyukia, C. 2003. Laboratory manual of food microbiology for Ethiopian health and nutrition research institute. UNIDO project (YA/ETH/03/436/11 -52). Pp 1-197.
Kurwijila, L. R., Omore, A., Staal, S. and Mdoe, N. S. Y. 2006. Investigation of the risk of exposure to antimicrobial residues present in marketed milk in Tanzania. Journal of Food Protection, 69: 2487-2492.
Marshall, T.R. 1992. Standard Method for the Examination of Dairy Products. 16th edition, American Public Health Association (APHA), Washington D.C, USA. Pp 213-223.
Melese, A. and Tesfaye, W. 2015. Bacteriological quality and safety of raw cowâ€™s milk in and around Jigjiga City of Somali Region, Eastern Ethiopia. International Journal of Research Studies in Biosciences (IJRSB), 3 (5): 48-55.
Murphy, S. C. 1996.Sources and causes of high bacteria count in raw milk. Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA. Pp 1-34.
Mustefa, A. K. 2012. Value chain and quality of milk in Sululta and Welmera Weredas, Oromia special zone surrounding Addis Ababa, Oromia, Ethiopia. Msc. Thesis, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Pp 1-55.
NMSA (National Meteorology Service Agency). 1996. Climatic and Agroclimatic Resources of Ethiopia; NMSA: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Omore, A., Lore, T., Staal, S., Kutwa, J., Ouma, R., Arimi, S. and Kangâ€™ethe, E. 2005. Addressing the public health and quality concerns towards marketed milk in Kenya. Smallholder Dairy Project Research and Development Report 3. ISBN 92-9146-168-7, Pp. 2-45.
Pandey, G. S. and Voskuil, G. C. S. 2011. Manual on milk safety, quality and hygiene. Golden Valley agricultural Research Trust, Zambia. P. 52.
Richardson, G. H. 1985. Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products. 15th edition. American Public Health Association (APHA). Washington, D. C., USA. 168-196.
Roberts, D. and Greenwood, M. 2003. Practical Food Microbiology. 3rd Edn. Blackwell Publishing Ltd., USA. ISBN-13: 9781405100755, P. 294.
Ruegg, P. L. 2003. Practical food safety interventions of dairy production. Journal of Dairy sciences, 86 (12): 1-9.
SAS (Statistical Analysis System). 2008. Statistics Analysis System userâ€™s Guide, (Release 9.2). SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina, USA.
Shimelis, G., Tena, A., Broder, M. and Assefa, M. 2015. Performance of high resolution satellite rainfall products over data scarce parts of Eastern Ethiopia. Remote Sensing, 7: 11639-11663.
Shunda, D., Habtamu, T. and Endale, B. 2013. Assessment of bacteriological quality of raw cow milk at different critical points in Mekelle, Ethiopia. International Journal of Livestock Research, 3 (3b): 42-48.
Souaibou, F., Philippe, S., Boniface, Y. and Francois, D. 2012. Microbiological quality of raw milk processed from cows raised under extensive system in the Republic of Benin. Research Journal of Microbiology, 7: 337-343.
Tadele, A., Mitiku, E., Yoseph, M. and Ameha, K. 2016. Milk postharvest handling practices across the supply chain in Eastern Ethiopia. Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research, 3 (2): 112-126.
Teshome, T. and Ketema, B. 2014. Microbiological quality and safety of raw milk collected from Kersa District, Jimma Zone, South west Ethiopia. Journal of Biological and Chemical Research, 31: 546-561.
Tollossa, W., Edessa, N., Ajebu, N. and Haile, W. 2012. Microbiological quality and safety of raw milk collected from Borana pastoral community, Oromia Regional State. African Journal of Food Science and Technology, 3: 213-222.
Torkar, K. G. and Teger, S. G. 2008. The microbiological quality of raw milk after introducing the two day's milk collecting system. Acta Agriculturae Slovenica, 92: 61-74.
Torkar, K. G. and Vengust, A. 2008. The presence of yeasts, molds and aflatoxin M1 in raw milk and cheese in Slovenia. Food Control, 19: 570-577.
Wouters, J. T. M., Ayad, E. H. E., Hugenholtz, J. and Smit, G. 2002. Microbes from raw milk for fermented dairy products. International Dairy Journal, 12: 91-109.
Yilma, Z. and Faye, B. 2006. Handling and microbial load of cowâ€™s milk and Ergo fermented milk collected from different shops and producers in central highlands of Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Animal Production, 6 (2): 7-82.
Yousef, A. E. and Carlstrom, C. 2003. Food Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual. A John Weiley and Son, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, Canada. P. 277.
Zelalem, Y. 2012. Microbial Properties of Ethiopian Marketed Milk and Milk Products and Associated Critical Points of Contamination: An Epidemiological Perspective, Epidemiology Insights. Dr. Maria De Lourdes Ribeiro De Souza Da Cunha (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-51-0565-7, Intech, DOI: 10.5772/31595, Pp 298-322.
Copyright (c) 2017 Tadele Amentie, Ameha Kebede, Yoseph Mekasha, Mitiku Eshetu
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
- I am authorized by my co-authors to enter into these arrangements.
- I warrant, on behalf of myself and my co-authors, that:
- the article is original, has not been formally published in any other peer-reviewed journal, is not under consideration by any other journal and does not infringe any existing copyright or any other third party rights;
- I am/we are the sole author(s) of the article and have full authority to enter into this agreement and in granting rights to Springer are not in breach of any other obligation;
- the article contains nothing that is unlawful, libellous, or which would, if published, constitute a breach of contract or of confidence or of commitment given to secrecy;
- I/we have taken due care to ensure the integrity of the article. To my/our - and currently accepted scientific - knowledge all statements contained in it purporting to be facts are true and any formula or instruction contained in the article will not, if followed accurately, cause any injury, illness or damage to the user.
- I, and all co-authors, agree that the article, if editorially accepted for publication, shall be licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0. If the law requires that the article be published in the public domain, I/we will notify Springer at the time of submission, and in such cases the article shall be released under the Creative Commons 1.0 Public Domain Dedication waiver. For the avoidance of doubt it is stated that sections 1 and 2 of this license agreement shall apply and prevail regardless of whether the article is published under Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 or the Creative Commons 1.0 Public Domain Dedication waiver.
- I, and all co-authors, agree that, if the article is editorially accepted for publication in Haramaya Journals, data included in the article shall be made available under the Creative Commons 1.0 Public Domain Dedication waiver, unless otherwise stated. For the avoidance of doubt it is stated that sections 1, 2, and 3 of this license agreement shall apply and prevail.