Integrated Use of Farmyard Manure and NPS Influenced Soil Chemical Properties, Yield and Yield Attributes of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) in Assosa District, Western Ethiopia
Background: Sorghum is the staple food crop in Assosa area and most important cereal crop next to teff and maize in Ethiopia. However, sorghum productivity is constrained by lack of improved agronomic practices, low soil fertility and associated low soil nutrient availability especially Nitrogen and Phosphorous deficiency and lack of integrated use of nutrient management practices.
Objective: The objective of this study was to increase sorghum production and productivity by optimizing integrated use of blended NPS +N and FYM fertilizers in Assosa district, Western Ethiopia.
Materials and Methods: The treatments consisted of four rates of FYM (0, 5, 10, and 15 t ha–1) and four rates of NPS (having 19N:38P:7S nutrient ratios) applied at the levels of 0, 50, 100 and 150% ha–1 along with N 46 kg ha–1. The experiment was laid out as a completely randomized block design in a factorial arrangement and replicated three times. The experiment was conducted for a period of two years, from 2020 to 2022. Data were collected on soil chemical properties and crop yield and yield attributes.
Results: The results showed that the main effect of FYM and NPS significantly (P < 0.01) affected leaf area index, thousand seed weight and grain yield of sorghum. The integrated use of FYM and NPS significantly (P < 0.05) affected leaf area index, thousand seed weight, grain, and biomass and harvest index of sorghum. The soil pH (5.52 to 5.63), organic carbon (1.57 to 1.93%) and CEC (25 to 31.08 cmol(+) kg–1) were improved in response to the application of 15 t FYM ha–1, whereas some improvement of total nitrogen (0.15 to 0.18%) and available phosphorous (3.32 to 9.64 mg P kg–1) in response to the application of 150% NPS ha–1 + 46 kg N ha–1. The integrated use of 15 t FYM ha–1 and 150% NPS ha–1+ N 46 kg ha–1 resulted in the best improvement of soil organic carbon (0.85% to 2.95%, total nitrogen (0.15 % to 0.20%), available P (3.26 to 10.03 mg P kg–1) and CEC (18.2 to 36.92 cmol(+) kg–1). However, the highest soil pH (5.88) value was recorded in response to the integrated use of 10 t FYM ha–1and 150% NPS ha–1+ N 46 kg ha–1. The highest grain yield (3.98 t ha–1) was obtained from the integrated use of 10 t FYM ha–1 and 150% NPS ha–1 + N 46 kg ha–1. The highest biological yield (5.09 t ha–1) obtained from the integrated use of 15 t FYM ha–1and 150% NPS ha–1 + N 46 kg ha–1. However, the lowest grain yield (0.63 t ha–1) and biological yield (1.07 t ha–1) recorded from the non-treated plots respectively. This implies that the grain yield was increased over by 84.2% and biological yield by 78.9% respectively when compared to the control. Economic analysis also indicated that the application of 10 t farmyard manure ha–1and 150% NPS ha–1 + N 46 kg ha–1 was provided the highest gross and net benefit.
Conclusion: It is concluded that the application of 10 t FYM ha–1and 150% NPS ha–1 + N 46 kg ha–1 resulted in the most economical yield and improved soil chemical properties, particularly soil organic carbon and available phosphorous. The highest mean net benefit (24, 640.14 ETB ha–1) was obtained from the application of 10 t FYM ha–1 and 150% NPS ha–1 + N 46 kg ha–1. This implies that combined applying of farmyard manure and mineral fertilizers at the above mentioned rates enhances the grain yield of sorghum accompanied enhanced contents of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen for sustainable production of the crop.
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